Immunology

    Our Skin As First Line of Defense

    Physical barriers block pathogens and foreign substances from entering the body. Unpunctured skin is the most extensive and obvious wall;…
    Environment

    Growth Rate of Human Populations

    It is almost impossible to overemphasize just how dramatically the human population has grown recently. Figure 1 plots changes in…
    Nutrition

    Minerals and Vitamins Required by Humans

    Humans and other animals get the chemical energy and carboncontaining building blocks they need from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. All…
    Environment

    How Do Honeybees Locate Food?

    Honeybees are highly social animals that live in hives. Inside the hive, a queen lays eggs that are cared for…
    Environment

    Why Is the Climate Changing So Rapidly?

    There are two main reasons for the rapid rise in CO2. First, the human population has exploded in size. The…
    Genetics

    Unwanted results of human inbreeding

    Sickle-cell anemia illustrates how natural selection can, paradoxically, maintain a disease in a population. We’ll now look at another way…
    Genetics

    Gene Regulation in Human

    Humans have about 20,000 protein-coding genes. Scientists have found that about 3800 of those genes are continually expressed in all…
    Genetics

    Difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

    All living things use DNA or RNA to store genetic information. But eukaryotes are different from bacteria and archaea in…
    Genetics

    DNA fingerprinting (DNA profiling)

    DNA fingerprinting (also known as DNA profiling or DNA typing) refers to any technique for identifying individuals based on the…
    Pharmacology

    Insulin abuse in bodybuilding

    Insulin is a perfect example of just how extreme some bodybuilders are willing to go to gain a competitive edge.…